PHPUnit + Laravel单元测试常用技能

 更新时间:2019年11月06日 16:39:20   作者:小青蛙   我要评论
这篇文章主要介绍了PHPUnit + Laravel单元测试常用技能,文中通过示例代码介绍的非常详细,对大家的学习或者工作具有一定的参考学习价值,需要的朋友们下面随着小编来一起学习学习吧

1. 数据供给器

用来提供参数和结果,使用 @dataProvider 标注来指定使用哪个数据供给器方法。例如检测app升级数据是否符合预期,addProviderAppUpdateData()提供测试的参数和结果。testAppUpdateData()检测appUpdateData()返回的结果是否和给定的预期结果相等,即如果$appId='apple_3.3.2_117', $result=['status' => 0, 'isIOS' => false], 则$data中如果含有['status' => 0, 'isIOS' => false], 则断言成功。建议在数据提供器,逐个用字符串键名对其命名,这样在断言失败的时候将输出失败的名称,更容易定位问题

示例代码:

<?php
  namespace Tests\Unit;
  use App\Services\ClientService;
  use Tests\TestCase;
  class ClientServiceTest extends TestCase
  {
    /**
     * @dataProvider addProviderAppUpdateData
     *
     * @param $appId
     * @param $result
     */
    public function testAppUpdateData($appId, $result)
    {
      $data = (new ClientService($appId))->appUpdateData();
      $this->assertTrue(count(array_intersect_assoc($data, $result)) == count($result));
    }
    public function addProviderAppUpdateData()
    {
      return [
        'null'         => [null, ['status' => 0, 'isIOS' => false, 'latest_version' => 'V']],
        'error app id'     => ['sdas123123', ['status' => 0, 'isIOS' => false, 'latest_version' => 'V']],
        'android force update' => ['bx7_3.3.5_120', ['status' => 0, 'isIOS' => false]],
        'ios force update'   => ['apple_3.3.2_117', ['status' => 1, 'isIOS' => true]],
        'android soft update' => ['sanxing_3.3.2_117', ['status' => 2, 'isIOS' => false]],
        'ios soft update'   => ['apple_3.3.3_118', ['status' => 2, 'isIOS' => true]],
        'android normal'    => ['fhqd_3.3.6_121', ['status' => 1, 'isIOS' => false]],
        'ios normal'      => ['apple_3.3.5_120', ['status' => 1, 'isIOS' => true]],
        'h5'          => ['h5_3.3.3', ['status' => 1, 'isIOS' => false]]
      ];
    }
  }

断言成功结果:

2. 断言方法

常用有assertTrue(), assertFalse(), assertNull(), assertEquals(), assertThat()。

assertThat()自定义断言。常用的约束有isNull()、isTrue()、isFalse()、isInstanceOf();常用的组合约束logicalOr()、logicalAnd()。例如检测返回的结果是否是null或ApiApp类。

示例代码:

<?php
  namespace Tests\Unit;
  use App\Models\ApiApp;
  use App\Services\SystemConfigService;
  use Tests\TestCase;
  class SystemConfigServiceTest extends TestCase
  {
    /**
     * @dataProvider additionProviderGetLatestUpdateAppApi
     *
     * @param $appType
     */
    public function testGetLatestUpdateAppApi($appType)
    {
      $result = SystemConfigService::getLatestUpdateAppApi($appType);
      $this->assertThat($result, $this->logicalOr($this->isNull(), $this->isInstanceOf(ApiApp::class)));
    }
    public function additionProviderGetLatestUpdateAppApi()
    {
      return [
        'apple'  => [1],
        'android' => [2],
        'null'  => [9999]
      ];
    }
  }

断言成功结果:

3. 对异常进行测试

使用expectExceptionCode()对错误码进行检测,不建议对错误信息文案进行检测。例如检测设备被锁后是否抛出3026错误码。

示例代码:

<?php
  namespace Tests\Unit;
  use App\Services\UserSecurityService;
  use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Cache;
  use Tests\TestCase;
  class UserSecurityServiceTest extends TestCase
  {
    public static $userId = 4;
    /**
     * 设备锁检测
     * @throws \App\Exceptions\UserException
     */
    public function testDeviceCheckLock()
    {
      $this->expectExceptionCode(3026);
      Cache::put('device-login-error-account-', '1,2,3,4,5', 300);
      UserSecurityService::$request = null;
      UserSecurityService::$udid  = null;
      UserSecurityService::deviceCheck(self::$userId);
    }
  }

断言成功结果:

4. 测试私有属性和私有方法使用反射机制

如果只测试私有方法可使用ReflectionMethod()反射方法,使用setAccessible(true)设置方法可访问,并使用invokeArgs()或invoke()调用方法(invokeArgs将参数作为数组传递)。例如检测IP是否在白名单中。

示例代码:

被检测代码:

namespace App\Facades\Services;
  /**
   * Class WebDefender
   */
  class WebDefenderService extends BaseService
  {
     //ip白名单
    private $ipWhiteList = [
      '10.*', 
      '172.18.*', 
      '127.0.0.1' 
    ];
    /**
     * ip是否在白名单中
     *
     * @param string $ip
     *
     * @return bool
     */
    private function checkIPWhiteList($ip)
    {
      if (!$this->ipWhiteList || !is_array($this->ipWhiteList)) {
        return false;
      }
      foreach ($this->ipWhiteList as $item) {
        if (preg_match("/{$item}/", $ip)) {
          return true;
        }
      }
      return false;
    }
   }

检测方法:

<?php
  namespace Tests\Unit;
  use App\Facades\Services\WebDefenderService;
  use Tests\TestCase;
  class WebDefenderTest extends TestCase
  {
    /**
     * 测试IP白名单
     * @dataProvider additionProviderIp
     *
     * @param $ip
     * @param $result
     *
     * @throws \ReflectionException
     */
    public function testIPWhite($ip, $result)
    {
      $checkIPWhiteList = new \ReflectionMethod(WebDefenderService::class, 'checkIPWhiteList');
      $checkIPWhiteList->setAccessible(true);
      $this->assertEquals($result, $checkIPWhiteList->invokeArgs(new WebDefenderService(), [$ip]));
    }
    public function additionProviderIp()
    {
      return [
        '10 ip' => ['10.1.1.7', true],
        '172 ip' => ['172.18.2.5', true],
        '127 ip' => ['127.0.0.1', true],
        '192 ip' => ['192.168.0.1', false]
      ];
    }
   }

测试私有属性可使用ReflectionClass(), 获取属性用getProperty(), 设置属性的值用setValue(), 获取方法用getMethod(), 设置属性和方法可被访问使用setAccessible(true)。例如检测白名单路径。

示例代码:

被检测代码:

<?php
  namespace App\Facades\Services;
  use App\Exceptions\ExceptionCode;
  use App\Exceptions\UserException;
  use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Cache;
  /**
   * CC攻击防御器
   * Class WebDefender
   */
  class WebDefenderService extends BaseService
  {
    //路径白名单(正则)
    private $pathWhiteList = [
      //'^auth\/(.*)',
    ];
    private static $request = null;
     /**
     * 请求路径是否在白名单中
     *
     * @return bool
     */
    private function checkPathWhiteList()
    {
      $path = ltrim(self::$request->getPathInfo(), '/');
      if (!$path || !$this->pathWhiteList || !is_array($this->pathWhiteList)) {
        return false;
      }
      foreach ($this->pathWhiteList as $item) {
        if (preg_match("/$item/", $path)) {
          return true;
        }
      }
      return false;
    }
  }

检测方法:

<?php
  namespace Tests\Unit;
  use App\Facades\Services\WebDefenderService;
  use Illuminate\Http\Request;
  use Tests\TestCase;
  class WebDefenderTest extends TestCase
  {
     /**
     * 检测白名单路径
     * @dataProvider additionProviderPathWhiteList
     *
     * @param $pathProperty
     * @param $request
     * @param $result
     *
     * @throws \ReflectionException
     */
    public function testCheckPathWhiteList($pathProperty, $request, $result)
    {
      $reflectedClass = new \ReflectionClass('App\Facades\Services\WebDefenderService');
      $webDefenderService   = new WebDefenderService();
      $reflectedPathWhiteList = $reflectedClass->getProperty('pathWhiteList');
      $reflectedPathWhiteList->setAccessible(true);
      $reflectedPathWhiteList->setValue($webDefenderService, $pathProperty);
      $reflectedRequest = $reflectedClass->getProperty('request');
      $reflectedRequest->setAccessible(true);
      $reflectedRequest->setValue($request);
      $reflectedMethod = $reflectedClass->getMethod('checkPathWhiteList');
      $reflectedMethod->setAccessible(true);
      $this->assertEquals($result, $reflectedMethod->invoke($webDefenderService));
    }
    public function additionProviderPathWhiteList()
    {
      $allPath      = ['.*'];
      $checkPath     = ['^auth\/(.*)'];
      $authSendSmsRequest = new Request([], [], [], [], [], ['HTTP_HOST' => 'api.dev.com', 'REQUEST_URI' => '/auth/sendSms']);
      $indexRequest    = new Request([], [], [], [], [], ['HTTP_HOST' => 'api.dev.com', 'REQUEST_URI' => '/']);
      $noMatchRequest   = new Request([], [], [], [], [], ['HTTP_HOST' => 'api.dev.com', 'REQUEST_URI' => '/product/sendSms']);
      return [
        'index'        => [[], $authSendSmsRequest, false],
        'no request'     => [$allPath, $indexRequest, false],
        'all request'     => [$allPath, $authSendSmsRequest, true],
        'check auth sms'   => [$checkPath, $authSendSmsRequest, true],
        'check path no match' => [$checkPath, $noMatchRequest, false]
      ];
    }
  }

5. 代码覆盖率

使用--coverage-html导出的报告含有类与特质覆盖率、行覆盖率、函数与方法覆盖率。可查看当前单元测试覆盖的范围。例如输出WebDefenderTest的代码覆盖率到桌面(phpunit tests/unit/WebDefenderTest --coverage-html ~/Desktop/test)

6. 指定代码覆盖率报告要包含哪些文件

在配置文件(phpunit.xml)里设置whitelist中的processUncoveredFilesFromWhitelist=true, 设置目录用<directory>标签,设置文件用<file>标签。例如指定app/Services目录下的所有文件和app/Facades/Services/WebDefenderService.php在报告中。

示例代码:

 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
  <phpunit backupGlobals="false"
       backupStaticAttributes="false"
       bootstrap="tests/bootstrap.php"
       colors="true"
       convertErrorsToExceptions="true"
       convertNoticesToExceptions="true"
       convertWarningsToExceptions="true"
       processIsolation="false"
       stopOnFailure="false">
    <testsuites>
      <testsuite name="Unit">
        <directory suffix="Test.php">./tests/Unit</directory>
      </testsuite>
      <testsuite name="Feature">
        <directory suffix="Test.php">./tests/Feature</directory>
      </testsuite>
    </testsuites>
    <filter>
      <whitelist processUncoveredFilesFromWhitelist="true">
        <directory suffix=".php">./app/Services</directory>
        <file>./app/Facades/Services/WebDefenderService.php</file>
      </whitelist>
    </filter>
    <php>
      <server name="APP_ENV" value="local"/>
      <server name="BCRYPT_ROUNDS" value="4"/>
      <server name="CACHE_DRIVER" value="credis"/>
      <server name="MAIL_DRIVER" value="array"/>
      <server name="QUEUE_CONNECTION" value="sync"/>
      <server name="SESSION_DRIVER" value="array"/>
      <server name="APP_CONFIG_CACHE" value="bootstrap/cache/config.phpunit.php"/>
      <server name="APP_SERVICES_CACHE" value="bootstrap/cache/services.phpunit.php"/>
      <server name="APP_PACKAGES_CACHE" value="bootstrap/cache/packages.phpunit.php"/>
      <server name="APP_ROUTES_CACHE" value="bootstrap/cache/routes.phpunit.php"/>
      <server name="APP_EVENTS_CACHE" value="bootstrap/cache/events.phpunit.php"/>
    </php>
  </phpunit>

7. 参考文档

PHPUnit官方文档 https://phpunit.readthedocs.io/zh_CN/latest/index.html
反射类 https://www.php.net/manual/en/class.reflectionclass.php
反射方法 https://www.php.net/manual/en/class.reflectionmethod.php

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